The   recognized   expert   resource   in   the   United   States   regarding   pallet   racking   is   the Rack   Manufacturer’s   Institute   (RMI).   RMI   represents   suppliers   of   Industrial   Steel Storage   Racks   and   Related   Structural   Systems.      RMI’s   main   engineering   document ANSI   MH16.1:   2012   Specification   for   the   Design, Testing   and   Utilization   of   Industrial Steel   Storage   Racks   addresses   the   topic   of   pallet   rack   repair   and   general   safe pallet    rack    operations.        All    following    RMI    applicable    excerpts    and    reference materials have been reproduced with expressed written permission of RMI. Please   note: The   use   of ANSI   MH16.1:   2012   is   permissive,   and   not   mandatory.     The RMI   has   no   legal   authority   to   require   or   enforce   compliance   with   the   Specification. This   advisory   Specification   provides   technical   guidelines   to   the   user.   Following   the Specification   does   not   assure   compliance   with   applicable   federal,   state,   or   local regulations   and   codes. This   Specification   is   not   binding   on   any   person   and   does   not have the effect of law. Related Passages: 1.4 Integrity of Rack Installation 1.4.1 Owner Maintenance (1) The   owner   shall   maintain   the   structural   integrity   of   the   installed   rack   system   by   assuring proper operational, housekeeping, and maintenance procedures including but not limited to: (2) Regularly   inspect   for   damage.   If   damage   is   found,   immediately   isolate   the   affected   area. Have   a   storage   rack   design   professional   evaluate   the   damage,   and   unload,   replace   or   repair if   directed   by   the   professional,   any   damaged   columns,   beams,   or   other   structural   components to restore the system to at least its original design capacity. (3) Require all pallets to be maintain in good safe operating condition (4) Ensure   that   pallets   are   properly   placed   onto   pallet   load   support   members   in   a   properly stacked and stable positions (5) Ensure that all goods stored on each pallet be properly stacked and stable. (6) Prohibit   double-   stacking   on   any   pallet   position,   including   the   top-most   position,   unless the rack system is specifically designed for such loading. (7) Ensure   that   the   racks   are   not   modified   or   rearranged   in   a   manner   not   within   the   original design configurations per 1.4.4 or as might invalidate the plaque information per 1.4.2. 1.4.2   Plaque:   The   owner   is   responsible   for   displaying   in   one   or   more   conspicuous   locations   a permanent   plaque(s).   Each   plaque   shall   have   an   area   of   not   less   than   50   square   inches.   Plaques shall   show   in   clear,   legible   print   (a)   the   maximum   permissible   unit   load   and/or   maximum   uniformly distributed   load   per   level,   (b)   the   average   unit   load   (Average,   see   Section   2.6.2)   if   applicable   and (c)   maximum   total   load   per   bay. The   unit   load   is   usually   a   single   pallet   or   container   and   its   contents that   is   mechanically   transported.   Storage   levels   having   multiple   stacking   of   unit   loads   shall   be   so identified.   It   is   the   responsibility   of   the   owner   to   ensure   that   the   rack   system   is   not   altered   in   a manner that the plaque information is invalidated. 1.4.3   Conformance: All   rack   installations   produced   in   conformity   with   this   Specification   shall   be   so identified   by   a   plaque   having   the   same   characteristics   as   specified   in   Section   1.4.2.   The   same plaque may be used to show permissible unit loads. 1.4.5   Multiple   Configurations:   If   a   pallet   rack   or   stacker   rack   system   is   designed   for   more   than   one shelf    configuration    or    profile,    the    drawings    (Section    1.4.4)    are    to    include    either    (a)    all    the permissible   configurations   or   (b)   limitations   as   to   the   maximum   number   of   shelves,   the   maximum distance   between   shelves   and   the   maximum   distance   from   the   floor   to   the   bottom   shelf.   This information    is    best    furnished    in    table    form    on    the    drawings.    A    notice    is    to    be    included    in conspicuous   text   on   the   drawings   stating   that   deviations   from   the   limitations   must   be   evaluated   by a   storage   rack   design   professional   or   the   deviation   may   impair   the   safety   of   the   rack   installation. American   National   Standard ANSI   MH16.1:   2012   (a   revision   of   MH16.1:   2008)   Specification   for   the Design, Testing   and   Utilization   of   Industrial   Steel   Storage   Racks   V12a   3   If   a   change   is   approved,   it shall be added as a permissible configuration on the drawings. 1.4.6 1.4.7   Column   Base   Plates   and   Anchors   The   bottom   of   all   columns   shall   be   furnished   with   column base   plates,   as   specified   in   Section   7.1. All   rack   columns   shall   be   anchored   to   the   floor   with   anchor bolts,   which   shall   be   designed   in   accordance   with   Section   7.3,   to   resist   all   applicable   forces   as described in Section 2.1 or Section 2.2 1.4.8   Small   Installations   For   installations   not   exceeding   12   feet   (3.65   m)   in   height   to   the   top   shelf, covering   floor   area   less   than   3,000   square   feet   (278.7   m2)   (not   including   aisles),   having   a   unit   load not   exceeding   2,500   pounds   (1134   kg),   and   having   no   multiple   stacking   on   the   top   shelf,   the provisions given in Sections 1.4.4 and 1.4.5 may be waived. 1.4.9    Rack    Damage:    Upon    any    visible    damage,    the    pertinent    portions    of    the    rack    shall    be immediately   isolated   by   the   user   until   the   damaged   portion   is   evaluated   by   a   storage   rack   design professional.   Before   allowing   the   rack   to   be   placed   back   into   service   the   design   professional   must certify   that   the   rack   system   and/or   the   repaired   components   have   been   restored   to   at   least   their original design capacity. 1.4.11   Out-of-plumb   and   Out-of-straight   Limits   Out-of-plumb   Limit The   maximum   top-to-bottom   out- of-plumb   ratio   for   a   loaded   rack   column   is   1/240   (for   example   1/2   inches   per   10   feet   (12.5   mm   per 3   m)   of   height).   American   National   Standard   ANSI   MH16.1:   2012   (a   revision   of   MH16.1:   2008) Specification   for   the   Design,   Testing   and   Utilization   of   Industrial   Steel   Storage   Racks   V12a   4 Columns   whose   out-of-plumb   ratio   exceeds   this   limit   should   be   unloaded   and   replumbed.   Any damaged parts must be repaired or replaced. 1.4.11.2   Out-of-straight   Limit   The   maximum   out-of-straight   ratio   for   a   loaded   rack   column   is   1/240 (0.05   inches   per   foot   or   1/2   inches   per   10   feet   (12.5   mm   per   3   m).   Columns   whose   out-of-plumb ratio   exceeds   this   limit   should   be   unloaded   and   replumbed.   Any   damaged   parts   must   be   repaired or replaced 2.6 Earthquake Loads (see specification) 5.4.2   Beam   Locking   Device   Except   for   movable-shelf   racks,   beams   subject   to   machine   loading shall   have   connection   locking   devices   (or   bolts)   capable   of   resisting   an   upward   force   of   1,000 pounds (453.6 kg) per connection without failure or disengagement. 5.6   WELDED-WIRE   RACK   DECKING   Where   Welded-Wire   Rack   Decking   is   utilized   to   support   the load, it shall be designed in accordance with ANSI MH26.2 [6]. 7.1.4   Shims   Shims   may   be   used   under   the   base   plate   to   maintain   the   plumbness   and/or   levelness of   the   storage   rack.   The   shims   shall   be   made   of   a   material   that   meets   or   exceeds   the   design bearing   strength   (LRFD)   or   allowable   bearing   strength   (ASD)   of   the   floor.   The   shim   size   and location   under   the   base   plate   shall   be   equal   to   or   greater   than   the   required   base   plate   size   and location.   In   no   case   shall   the   total   thickness   of   a   shim   stack   under   a   base   plate   exceed   six   times the   diameter   of   the   largest   anchor   bolt   used   in   that   base.   Shims   stacks   having   a   total   thickness greater   than   two   and   less   than   or   equal   to   six   times   the   anchor   bolt   diameter   under   bases   with   only one   anchor   bolt   shall   be   interlocked   or   welded   together   in   a   fashion   that   is   capable   of   transferring all   the   shear   forces   at   the   base.   Shims   stacks   having   a   total   thickness   of   less   than   or   equal   to   two times   the   anchor   bolt   diameter   need   not   be   interlocked   or   welded   together.   Bending   in   the   anchor associated   with   shims   or   grout   under   the   base   plate   shall   be   taken   into   account   in   the   design   of anchor bolts. 7.3   ANCHOR   BOLTS   Anchor   Bolt   Design   The   anchor   bolt   design   shall   be   in   accordance   with   the provisions   of   ACI   318   Appendix   D.   The   redundancy   factor   in   the   load   combinations   in   Section   2.1 and   2.2   shall   be   1.0.   7.3.2   Periodic   Inspection   of Anchor   Bolt   Installation   When   periodic   inspection of   the   anchor   bolt   installation   is   required,   the   owner,   or   the   owner’s   designated   representative, shall   retain   a   qualified   inspector   to   conduct   the   inspection.   Only   the   anchors   in   the   main   force- resisting system need to be inspected. See the commentary for a broader discussion of this topic. 8.1 OVERTURNING    ROW    SPACERS:   The    height-to-depth    ratio    of    a    storage    rack    shall    not exceed   6   to   1   measured   to   the   top   loaded   shelf   level,   unless   the   rack   is   anchored   or   braced externally   to   resist   all   forces.   The   height   is   measured   from   the   floor   to   the   top   loaded   shelf   level and   the   depth   from   face   to   face   of   the   upright   column.   Storage   rack,   which   is   loaded   and   unloaded by   powered   handling   equipment,   that   exceeds   the   6   to   1   ratio   defined   above,   shall   also   be designed   to   resist   a   350-pound   (159   kg)   side   force   applied   to   any   single   frame   at   the   top   loaded shelf   level   in   a   direction   perpendicular   to   the   aisle.   For   LRFD   design   method,   the   load   factor applied   to   this   force   shall   be   1.6.   This   force   is   to   be   applied   to   an   empty   frame   and   divided   into   as many   frames   as   are   interconnected   in   the   direction   of   the   force.   Anchors   and   base   plates   will   be designed   to   resist   uplift   forces   from   this   force   when   applied   to   an   empty   frame.   Frame   columns need   not   be   designed   for   the   additional   axial   load   from   this   force.   Unless   it   can   be   shown   to   be unnecessary    because    of    such    factors    as    soil,    slab    and    frame    stiffness,    single    rows    of    rack exceeding   a   height-to-depth   ratio   of   8   to   1   must   be   tied   externally   to   the   building   or   cross-aisle   to another   rack.   Stabilizing   a   single   rack   with   a   height-to-depth   ratio   over   8   to   1   with   anchoring   alone is not recommended, unless designed and certified by an engineer.     8.4.1   Posting   of   Design   Loads The   design   loads   for   the   floor   areas   of   the   rack   supported   platforms and    pick    module    walkways    shall    be    shown    on    the    rack    configuration    and    load    application drawings.   These   design   loads   shall   also   be   displayed   in   one   or   more   conspicuous   locations   within the structure, such as at the top of the access stairways
ANSI MH 16.1 -2012 Related Excerpts
Mac Rak Safety
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